Q.1 Create a file via touch and update that file and also verify the timestamp and output will be redirected to another file.

Here I am adding screenshot to visualize and for easy understand.

Step 1: Create a new directory using “mkdir”.

Step 2: Go to that directory using “cd” command.

Step 3: Use touch command to create a file. Check whether the file created or not using “ls” command.

Step 4: Check the timestamp using “ls -l” command.

Step 5: To open the file and write something use “vim” command.

Step 6: Go to insert mode to write something.

Step 7: After writing something press “ESC” key on keyboard and type “wq” and hit “enter” key for quitting the file and save the written lines.

Step 7: To check the file content use “cat” command.

Q.2 Add some of the data as per your choice and append that data via echo command in the same file

To write something without opening the file and append use “echo” command.

Q.3 Install httpd and set up your own web server.

Step 1: To install httpd use command “yum install httpd -y > /dev/null”.

Step 2: To start httpd use command “systemctl start httpd”

Step 3: To enable httpd (By default disabled) use command “systemctl enable httpd”

Step 4: To check the status of httpd use command “systemctl status httpd”

Q.4 Copy some files from one Linux host to another Linux host via SCP.

Step 1: Open both host and rename as “host1” and “host2” using command “hostnamectl set-hostname host1” and “hostnamectl set-hostname host2”. After that use command “exec bash” to execute name change operation.

Step 2: Check the ip address of both host using command “ifconfig enp0s3 | grep inet”.

Step 3: Create a file in host1 using “vim” command and write something.

Step 4: Transfer the file from host1 to host2 using SCP, use command “scp filename root@(ip address of host2):/tmp”. Password of host2 will be asked at that time.

Q.5 Create another VM and setup password less authentication.

  • Another VM can be setup by cloning the current VM.

Step 1: Go to Oracle VM VirtualBox and right click on the current CentOS and select Clone.

Step 2: Don’t change the default settings and just click Next.

Step 3: Then choose Full Clone option from the current window.

Step 4: Click Clone. This will set another CentOS in your VirtualBox.


Step 1: Generate the key using “ssh-keygen” in host 1 and enter authentication credentials.

Step 2: Then copy this key in host2 using command “ssh-copy-id root@(ip address of host2)”. host2 will verify if it’s coming from the right source or not and if the key is matched, it means you are able to login. After that you need not to enter password while accessing host2 anymore.

This is less authentication Password setup to access different host.




Love podcasts or audiobooks? Learn on the go with our new app.

Recommended from Medium

Hold on in Matlab

hold on in matlab

A Review of Medium Articles About Tech: Volume 1 (2022–02–25)

Towards self-documenting code

Andela challenges I’ve encountered so far and how I’ve had to adapt since last week.

Advanced Python: How To Use Signal Driven Programming In Applications

Access Delegation — OAuth 2.0 sample WSO2

MUGA Maintenance in East Mersea | Surface Maintenance #Multi #Use #Games #Area #Maintenance #East…

Dynamic HTML drop-down with PHP and MySQL

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store


More from Medium

Process Manager-{systemd}

Why Distro Fragmentation is bad (and confuses new Linux users)

Linux Operating System

How One Linux Utility Can Cause the CPU 100% Usage Issue